Barabar Caves, First Ever Caves Of India In Bihar


Recently visited Barabar caves as part of my first-ever trip to Bihar. Excavated caves are spread across several hills. The traveling monks of various sects like Jains, Buddhists, and Ajivikas used them. To stay during the rainy season when they could not travel.

Map of hill on which Barabar Caves are located
Map of the hill on which Barabar Caves are located

Barabar Caves, Gaya, Historical Place in Bihar

The cave architecture or the cave temples over a period of time became an art in themselves. We see some of the most evolved ones at Ajanta and Ellora.

The pathway up the hill leading to the heritage place
The pathway up the hill leading to the heritage place

Beginnings of Cave Excavation

Like many other beginnings, the beginnings of cave excavation also lie in Bihar. Located a few km off Gaya on Barabar and the Nagarjuni hill. These are the earliest known caves that were excavated during the reign of Ashoka and his grandson Dasaratha. Barabar Hill has 3 caves and the Nagarjuni Hill has 4, and together they are called Satghar. These caves are the beginning of the cave chaitya Grihas, which goes through complex developments over the next 1000 years and 1200 halls.

Rock Hill in which first ever caves at Barabar were excavated
Rock Hill in which the first-ever caves were excavated

Sudhama, Karna & Lomas Rishi Caves

The three Barabar caves are called Sudhama, Karna, and Lomas Rishi caves. The first and third are Chaitya halls and the second one is a dwelling unit. Roofs and walls of the caves are very well polished. That is supposed to be similar to the Polish found on Ashoka pillars. I happened to visit many Ashoka pillars in the recent past. I can tell from first-hand experience that the polish inside these caves is far better than any of the pillars. This could have been because of the fact that these caves were shielded all the time. While pillars were exposed to all kinds of damage natural and man-made.

When you put your hands on the walls of the caves, it feels as if they have been polished just yesterday. And all your reasoning would refuse to believe that this was done 2400 years ago. You look at the circular Chaitya part of the cave. And wonder how they would have scooped out the rock to make a near-perfect dome.

Lomas Rishi Cave, Barabar Hills
Lomas Rishi Cave, Barabar Hills

Lomas Rishi Cave

The doorway to the Lomas Rishi cave is the only one that is carved. It has the ornamental features that provided the norm for the facades of the later rock-cut caves. The entrance arch has a pair of concentric lunettes, the upper one decorated with latticework. And the lower is filled with rows of exquisitely carved elephants paying homage to stupas. This work is inspired by wooden prototypes. As that was the popular media for art before the stone, which was just beginning to be the medium for the expression of art. High polish and sharp chiseling make this an exquisite piece of art.

Polished interiors of the caves
Polished interiors of the caves

Drive to the Hill

As you take a detour from Patna-Gaya main road, you need to travel a road that looks going nowhere. Then you see a lone hill standing in the middle of fields and you wonder how would this narrow delicate road take you there. We were well escorted on this journey. But I wonder how much courage would you need to go alone on this lonely hill through a lonely road. I did not even see any public transport going to the hill. Though once you reach there you see reasonable infrastructure in terms of a guesthouse, an abandoned museum, and broad roads leading to the caves on top of the hill.

Landscape view of the mountain on the way
Landscape view of the mountain on the way

Shiva Temple

There is a Shiva temple on top of the hill across the Barabar hill. We were told that during Shivaratri lot of people visit this temple. And for a month or so a fair that is hosted here. There are well-defined steps leading to this temple as well. We could not visit the Naragjuni hill but I assume caves there are very similar to these caves.

If you are traveling between Patna and Bodh Gaya, Barabar Caves is worth a small detour. To see the beginning of an architectural style at this historical place.

Recommend you to read the following travel blog posts of Places to visit in Bihar. They are also Historical places in Bihar.

Bodh Gaya – Where Buddha achieved Enlightenment

Patna – Current day version of Pataliputra

Nalanda – the Ancient Seat of Learning

Rajgir – Host of Buddhist councils

Vaishali – Birthplace of Lord Mahaveer

Mithila’s Madhubani artist Ganga Devi

Banka Bihar – First Impressions


  1. great post, I really don’t know Bihar has a great tourist place. thanks for sharing a fabulous post with us.

    • Neharika – Bihar is the most underrated state of India – it was the cradle of Indic civilization once upon a time. Read other posts and you will find how rich it is.


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