Rendezvous With Indus Valley Civilization At Lothal

Lothal Lower Town Map at Lothal Museum
Lothal Lower Town Map

Once upon a time life in Indian subcontinent flourished on the banks of River Saraswati. Ancient urban centers with well-planned cities are still being discovered in and around Saraswati and its tributaries for more than a century now. Every site adds to the mystique and scale of the civilization. At the southern end of this civilization in the gulf of Khambat, in the village called Lothal lies a dockyard that was used to trade through the sea routes with other civilizations.

Lothal, Gujarat – Ruins & Remains

Ruins of Indus Valley Civilization at Lothal, Gujarat
Ruins of Indus Valley Civilization at Lothal

Lothal today wears the look of an abandoned town – with only its foundations remaining to tell the story. As a layperson, there is nothing much that you can make out. There are some ASI boards but they give a broad direction and hardly explain anything. Thankfully I carried the ASI booklet on Lothal, that I had picked from their headquarters in Delhi years ago for this very day – when I have to stand there and figure out what is what. Museum building at Lothal is the one you notice as you reach the site. And then you have to look around to find the actual site and walk towards it through a dusty path.

A kiln at Lothal , Gujarat
A kiln at Lothal

Site at first looks like a giant complex that was abandoned after the foundation was laid. A set of structures on a raised platform was the warehouse where the traded goods were stocked. The place does not look too big, and as we moved ahead the whole city appeared pretty small. But then I realize that my reference point is the towns and cities of today that are too big when compared to their own sizes even 50 years ago.

Indus Valley Bead Factory at Lothal

Bead making factories at Lothal - Gujarat
Bead making factories at Lothal

We move ahead and see a bead factory that has been discovered here. There are kilns and what looks like giant pots over ovens. Most of these are re-constructed of course. But they are in-situ or right at the places where they were found. The beads at this factory were supposed to be very fine and a sample can be seen at the museum. Fine white beads that you cannot see but probably not appreciate with naked eye make you wonder about the technology our ancestors had more than 3000 years ago. Museum has put a magnifying glass in front of those displays so that you can see them both in a glass test tube and as part of a necklace made out of them.

I wish ASI / Tourism department / Culture department would make an effort to reconstruct a demo of the process. And maybe teach them to the locals so that it generates some livelihood for them. Almost everyone who looks at those beads wants to pick them up – as a souvenir or a memento from the past.

Drainage system of Indus Valley Civilization at Lothal, Gujarat
Drainage system of Indus Valley Civilization at Lothal

We move ahead and see the lower town. That I found a bit difficult to comprehend as the houses and the rooms appeared too tiny for human habitation. Though I could appreciate the symmetry. In the far corner of the site was the burial site – again I take the word of the board – could not make out much. Walking across the site we came across many water channels that ran through it. And this was probably a part of the famous drainage system that history textbook told us about.

World’s oldest Dockyard at Lothal.

World's oldest dockyard at Lothal, Gujarat
World’s oldest dockyard at Lothal

By the side of the site lies a well that had bricks in isosceles trapezoid shape instead of the usual rectangle so that they come together and form a circle easily. I do not remember seeing anything like this elsewhere. Next to it is the dockyard – which is a rectangular pond with a channel connecting it to a potential canal to maintain water levels. It looks like any other water body except the brickwork seems to be old. And then you have to use your imagination to visualize that small ships laden with trading goods would have arrived, parked here and re-loaded the products made at Lothal. Maybe other towns around Lothal and left the place to probably go to Sindh – a little far away across the Arabian sea.

Indus Valley Civilization

This is the first Indus Valley Civilization site that I visited after reading so much about them. Of course, the big wish is to go and see the town of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Although experts, who have visited them, tell me that it would be a disappointing visit. Even at Lothal, I was mentally prepared for not finding anything spectacular. But I wanted to stand at the place where a sophisticated civilization once flourished. And that was an emotional moment to connect directly with the remains of that civilization. To stand on its walls and to be able to touch those bricks, to see those beads with your own eyes along with many other artifacts discovered from the site.

It was a dream come true for me to be standing at Lothal – one of the oldest known living sites in the world.

Recommend you to read following travel blog on Places to visit in Gujarat.

  1. Legacy of a Queen – Rani Ki Vav.
  2. 6 Must see Museums in Ahmedabad.
  3. Understanding the Architecture of Sun Temple Modhera.
  4. Historic Pavagadh Hill, Gujarat.
  5. Sahastralinga Talav, Patan, Gujarat.


  1. “Thankfully I carried the ASI booklet on Lothal, that I had picked from their headquarters in Delhi years ago for this very day – when I have to stand there and figure out what is what.” – That sounds like a seasoned traveller, ready for any contingencies even way ahead in future. 🙂

    It’s quite a pity that the Indus Valley sites are not maintained or displayed as well as they could have been. I was in Kutch earlier this year and one morning over breakfast where I was staying, this Polish lady was telling me about her Dholavira excursion the previous day. She had felt really lost, didn’t know where to look or what to make of most things, and didn’t even find any helpful signboards (or even local guides who could have made up stories)! You may have visited Polonnaruwa or Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka. I was so fascinated and impressed by how they’ve restored large parts of the erstwhile ruined city in Polonnaruwa, with a fantastic museum to boot. Wish we had something similar done for our Indus sites.

  2. I had the good fortune to visit Dholavira in 2013

    There was a ASI museum employee who showed us around as a guide. He told us he was part of the original ASI dig there in the 80s and 90s. Hence we got a pretty good walkabout of Dholavira

    He said that upto 60-70% of Dholavira has deliberately been left undisturbed in the ground. Because these 5000 year old structures would not survive long if left exposed to elements today. To cover them properly would have a huge cost, and he wryly remarked “in our country, there is no money for living people, who is going to spend on long dead people?”

    • I am yet to visit Dholavira, but did go to Lothal – the oldest know dockyard in the world. More than money I think it is the respect for heritage that stops us from protecting and preserving it.

      • Dear madam.
        Please visit Dholavira. I am from Bengaluru still I went to see Dholavira. It is a nice place. Standing on the streets where our forefathers walked gives a sort of pleasure if you are an archeology student.I took lot of photographs The museum there is well maintained and the road to Dholavira is good.

  3. I visited Dholavira with my Guru, Sri Ganapathy Sachchidananda Swamiji from Mysore. He is very interested in human heritage across the globe. We stayed in Dholavira the night and made a detailed tour of Dholavira site. Except the museum guide, there were no visitors that day. We made a detailed walk about of the place and it was mesmerising. The museum gave detailed explanation of the site and exhibited some interesting artefacts found from the site. To see the tools and implements used by our ancestors 4000 years ago connects you to them. The visit is detailed at

      • I went to Lothal earlier this ear. I share the exact sentiments. Unfortunately the museum was closed and just a walk thru was interesting but without a guide book , it was frustrating. ASI needs to put up boards at appropriate places to inform visitors.
        On a separate note, is Dholavira open to the public. ??

        • I completely agree with you. Both ASI and Ministry of tourism need to put more information. On site guides can be a vocation for local youth. I have not been to Dholavira but I believe it is open to public.