Sun Temple Modhera – Understanding The Architecture


There are two prominent Sun temples in India. One is Konark on the east coast in the state of Odisha. And the other is in the western state of Gujarat at Modhera. In this post, I am going to explain the architecture of Sun Temple Modhera which was built in 1026 CE by King Bhimdev – a Solanki King who ruled from Patan. Solankis are a Suryavanshi dynasty. Descendants of the Sun and hence a temple dedicated to the Sun. This temple is a contemporary of the Chola temples in the South and Chandela temples in the North.

Sun Temple at Modhera, GujaratThis was the peak of Indian temple architecture with ample examples across the country of the finest sculpted architecture.

Sun Temple Modhera

If I were to close my eyes and go back in time, I would like to go back to the early 11th CE when the country would be full of lovely temples with painted walls and artists still working on giving the finishing touches to their masterpieces. When in ruins they look so enthralling. How would they be when they were all practicing temples with music and dance as part of their daily rituals? One can only imagine. Let’s look at what is left with us after Mahmud Ghazni & Allaudin Khilji’s generals tried their best to destroy the Sun temple at Modhera.

The architecture of Sun Temple Modhera explained

Surya Kund, Sabhamandapa & Main temple at Modhera
Surya Kund, Sabhamandapa & Main temple at Modhera

Let me explain the Architecture of Sun Temple Modhera. Modhera Sun temple has 3 main parts. The main temple with a Garbhagriha and a mandapa called Guda Mandapa, a detached Sabhamandapa, and a stepped water tank. When the temple reflects in the waters of the tank it looks mesmerizing. Its reigning deity – the Sun helps enhance the beauty at its magic hours in the morning and evening. Just behind the temple, the river Pushpavati flows. You can see some Keerti Torans on the side of the temple. It is not a practicing temple as there is no idol left in the temple.

The temple is built using a locking system that is said to be an earthquake-resistant method. As in the case of an earthquake; the structure would shake but not fall. It also sits on the tropic of cancer that passes through India. I am yet to figure out the significance of building a temple right on the tropic of cancer. Awe is the first expression you would have when you first look at the temple. I went around the temple a couple of times and then hired a guide who then explained the nuances.

Surya Kund

Surya Kund at Sun Temple, Modhera
Surya Kund

The water tank or Surya Kund at Modhera’s Sun Temple is a stepwell on the eastern edge of the Sun Temple complex facing the Sabha Mandap. It has pyramid-shaped steps forming some intriguing geometric patterns on the steps. However, what makes this tank distinct from other similar temple tanks, is the presence of big and small temples on its steps. On the step directly opposite the temple, a temple has Vishnu on Shesh Shaiya. There are temples dedicated to Ganesha and Shiva as Nataraja.

One temple is dedicated to Shitlamata – the goddess of Chicken Pox, whose vehicle is a donkey and she holds the broom in one hand and Neem leaves in another. Other temples are in various states of ruins, but they all look beautiful even now.

It is said that originally there were 108 shrines on these steps. It is difficult to count how many of them remain, but they are just simply beautiful. The geometry of the formations is breathtaking.

Big & small temples on steps of Surya Kund
Big & small temples on the steps of Surya Kund

According to literature, the steps of Surya Kund are a stylized mirror image of the Shikhara that unfortunately no longer exists. Symbolically it brought together the fire and the water.

Turtles still live in the waters of this tank. This tank is also called Ramakund for the legend of Rama associated with the place.

Sabha Mandapa

Landscape view of the Sabha Mandapa
Landscape view of the Sabha Mandapa

The Sabha Mandapa is a diagonally arranged octagonal hall that welcomes you with its exquisite toran. Its best feature is its magnificently carved pillars carrying Torana arches in alternate triangular and semi-circular designs. Literature tells me there are 52 pillars denoting the 52 weeks of a solar year. The heavily carved pillars have scenes from Ramayana, Mahabharata & Krishna Leela.

Some of the scenes that I remember are Sita in Ashok Vatika in Sri Lanka, Vanar Sena with stones in their hands to make the bridge, Krishna with Govardhan Parvat on his fingertip, and Arjuna with his bow in Draupadi’s Swayamvar. There are the Vishkanya’s doing their makeup.

Torans inside Sabha Mandapa at Sun Temple, Modhera
Torans inside Sabha Mandapa at Sun Temple Modhera

This hall was used for public functions – religious or otherwise like councils, performances, or public meetings.

Main Temple

Sun Temple Main Building
Landscape view of the main temple

The Sun temple is so designed that on the days of equinoxes i.e. 21st March and 21st September, the first rays of the Sun fall on the idol of the Sun in Garbhagriha. Is this not an engineering wonder too then? The main sun temple is on a plinth that is designed like an inverted lotus. Remember lotus is a flower that responds to the Sun’s rays and lives only for the time sun rays are there. On top of lotus petals is a panel carved with Elephants called Gaj-Petika.

Above these the entire life cycle of a human being is carved; starting right from the time a human being is conceived with an act of intercourse to the death depicted with last rites. There are other erotic figures as well on the exterior as was the norm in the temples of that era.

There are sculptures of people playing various musical instruments. Above these flora/fauna/life are deities. There are 12 idols of Parvati in her various forms called Dwadash Gauri. There are 12 idols of the Sun as if he is all-pervading. Some idols of the Sun are in Irani Style with Gumboots and a long cap. As per the guide, this is because sun worship started in Iran.

Deities of 8 directions

In all 8 directions, the temple has deities of the 8 directions:

  • North – Kubera, the lord of wealth
  • North-East – Rudra – a form of Shiva
  • East – Indra or lord of Rains
  • South-East – Agni or lord of Fire
  • South – Yama, God of death
  • South-West – Nairiti – a form of Shiva
  • West – Varun or lord of water
  • North-West – Vayu or Lord of Air
Carvings on main temple walls
Carvings on main temple walls


It is said that the main idol was made of pure gold and depicted the sun sitting on his chariot with 7 horses with his Sarathi Arun driving the chariot. The idol sat on a deep plinth that was again filled with gold coins. Today, all you can see is the deep pit in Garbhagriha that tells the tale of plundering. It is said that the diamonds on the idol could light the whole temple. All this is oral history and no one knows where the idol is. Some say that when the attacks were made on the temples, some Brahmin families hid the idols with them and saved them.

Based on what I read and heard, the whereabouts of this idol are not known. There is a closed underground path that potentially links the temple to Patan, the capital city of Solankis.

Inverted lotus petals, panel of elephants carrying temple on their back and human life
Inverted lotus petals, the panel of elephants carrying temple on their back, and human life

Garbhagriha has a circumambulation path and is attached to an octagonal Guda mandapa. Guda mandapa is embellished with niche images of twelve Adityas – showing different aspects of the Sun – probably representing each Solar month.

The Shikhara or the superstructure is missing so the temple now looks flatter than it should be.

Legend of Modhera Sun Temple

Carved Ceiling
Carved Ceiling

According to Skanda Purana and Brahma Purana, it is said that when Ram was coming back from Sri Lanka after killing Ravana, he wanted to absolve himself of the sin of killing a Brahmin – remember Ravana was a Brahmin. He asked Vashishth Muni to show him a place where he can do the same and the sage pointed him to Dharmaranya – or the forest of the Dharma. Rama performed his Yagna here and established a village called Sitapur.

Sitapur is the village that came to be known as Modhera later, which actually translates to a mound of the dead, probably because this place has seen layers of civilization, one upon the other. Another legend says this Modhera got its name from the Modh community of Brahmins who helped Rama perform his Yagna here.

It is one of the few archeological sites that are very well maintained by ASI. Do put it on your itinerary when you go to Gujarat. Hope this blog helps you better understand the Architecture of Sun Temple Modhera.

Recommend you to read the following travel blog on Places to visit in Gujarat.

Historic Pavagadh Hill

The Legacy of a Queen – Rani Ki Vav

6 Must-see Museums in Ahmedabad

Explore Medieval Architecture at Champaner

Carved Gates of Dabhoi


  1. my add-on 2 yr. solar illuminations-
    the famous suryanar temple in kumbakonam district of tamil nadu.
    the architectural feature here is-
    the sun`s rays in the mornings faal exactly on the sanctum sanctorum or the garbha griha
    as it is called.
    keep illuminating us through yr. writings.

  2. Good article! Wish you provided the location of this unique temple, how to reach etc. Incidentally there’s a temple of Lord Suryanarayana Swam at A rasa villi in Andhra Padeswood – Sarojaprasad, Hyderabad

  3. An informative article. Nice writng. Visited this place a few years back. Tourist inflow is less compared to othet places. Hope more people visit it.

  4. Dear Anuradhaji
    A wonderful description of Suryakund giving almost complete details in such a short write-up.
    Congratulations and all the best

  5. Though the beauty and the engineering marvel of the temple is described well in the description, it’s quite pathetic for not mentioning the at least a word about the greatness of ancient indian sculptors.. there are no details of the sthapathi’s .. the chief architect.. nobody or researcher is trying to publicise the names of architects.. shame .. dam shame … there is almost no tourism in india Without the sculptors .. remember all indians…

  6. Wonderful post!!!
    I have visited this temple before with an indologist and got to know some basic information then.
    I am so much in love with this temple that now I am gonna visit it again!
    And I got to know a lot from you too!
    You know what!? Coincidently, I am visiting on 21st Sept, the day of the equinox!
    Got to know this phenomenon from your post!
    It is a really well-written post!
    Would love to be in touch with you and learn indology and iconography…
    Keep writing!

  7. Thank you very much for your detailed explanation. I’m happy that generous people like you exist. You have shed light in many things which I was ignorant about. Your information was worth than reading a book on this matter.

    Honestly appreciate the effort you have taken to put your thoughts and experiences together.

    Thanks you.

  8. Thank you very much for detailed explaination. This will surely help us to see and understand the engineered marvel. I sincerely appreciate your efforts to explain this archeological monument.


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